So, you wanted to know about your rights, huh?
I am sure we have all heard of the landmark case of Loving v. Virginia 1967. Here the Supreme Court ruled that banning interracial marriage was against the equal protection of law clause established by the 14th Amendment of the US Constitution.
Pretty ahead of its time, right?
This verdict by the Supreme Court struck down the once-prevalent race-based law. By doing so, it was actually implementing one of the basic human rights established by the United Nation’s Universal Declaration Of Human Rights.
Humanity Will Extinct Without The Human Rights
There are various types of human rights that we, as common men, do not consider to be a “human right” per se. Speaking our minds, expressing our thoughts freely, and going to a church/temple/mosque are a few of the things that we happen to do regularly.
We cannot possibly analyze every action, or else we could’ve known how many of these are actually privileges we enjoy by virtue of being human beings.
So, what are the different types of human rights? Read on to know more.
Human Rights: What Are They?
Human Rights are the rights that we enjoy inherently by birth. They are not vested in us by the government of any state or federally, although they are often protected by them.
The most common human rights that we enjoy every day since time immemorial are:
Right to life and liberties, speech, thought, and expression.
Comparatively recent additions to this list include the right to vote, religion, and the right against discrimination. More rights are to be added with the progress of society and with time.
UDHR: The Godfather
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a comprehensive guideline on the list of human rights and freedoms adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. It includes the 30 rights that one enjoys as a human being. They are as follows:
|Right to Equality||Freedom from any kind of Discrimination|
|Right to Life, Liberty, and Personal Security||Freedom from Slavery|
|Freedom from Torture and Degrading Treatment||Right to Recognition as a Person before the Law|
|Right to bring up Equality right before the Law||Right to the Remedy by the Competent Tribunal|
|Freedom from making an Arbitrary Arrest and an Exile.||Right for a Fair public hearing.|
|Right to be Considered Innocent until Proven Guilty||Freedom from third-party Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, and other types of different correspondence.|
|Right to Free Movement in and out of the Country||Right to admit in an Asylum in other Countries from the Persecution|
|Right to Nationality and the Freedom of Changing It||Right to choice Marriage and Family|
|Right to Owning a Property||Freedom of a specific Belief and certain Religion|
|Freedom of Opinion and Information||Right of Peaceful Assembly and Association|
|Right to Participate in Government and in Free Elections||Right to Social Security|
|Right to get a Desirable Work and Join the Trade Unions||Right to Rest and Leisure|
|Right to Adequate Life and Living Standard||Right to Education|
|Right to Participating in the Cultural Life of in a Community||Right to a Social Orders with the Articulates of this Documents|
|Community Duties Essential to Free and Full Development||Freedom from State or Personal Interference in the above Rights|
It has been a source and standard of conduct for members that have implemented most of the rights mentioned in it, into their Constitutions.
Wondering About The Types Of Human Rights?
Human rights are fundamental rights and freedoms enjoyed by an individual. These rights are applicable to humans irrespective of their caste, color, religion, national origin, language, gender identity, sexual orientation, and economic or social background.
Human rights can be allotted into various categories based on the spheres they serve.
For example, the right to vote can be considered to be a human right of political nature. It can serve as a social right up to a certain extent as voting provides one with the opportunity to change the current social settings. Whether women enjoy the same voting rights as men also says a lot about the gender rights scenario of the country.
|Rights Can Be Positive Or Negative|
Negative rights can be identified as freedom from certain elements, such as suppression, slavery, torture, and apartheid. The state is to make sure that these violations do not take place, especially now in the 21st Century.
Positive rights are the rights that take care of the basic needs of the citizens. They include access to amenities and meeting basic needs like food, shelter, education, healthcare services, etc. This was a rather generic differentiation. Now let us take a more detailed approach to the types of human rights.
The different types of Human Rights include:
Economic, Social, And Cultural Rights
There is a substantial portion of the rights that constitute the economic, social, and cultural types of human rights. Apart from the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, the International Covenant on the Economical, Social, and Cultural Rights of 1976, acts as a protection and guard of these rights.
There are group-specific human rights protection agencies, such as the one that looks into human rights violations of children and women.
The list of Human Rights that fall under this category includes the following:
|The right to work- a safe environment, fair wage, and without discrimination; are a few of the conditions.||Right to health care- including mental health care.|
|Right to basic education.||The right to proper food, clothing, and shelter.|
|Right to sanitation and clean drinking water.||Right to be culturally active.|
|Right to keep up and enjoy scientific and technological progress.||Right to social security.|
Civil And Political Rights
The first half of the UN Declaration of Human Rights deals with the civil and political types of human rights guaranteed under it. Political rights are to be enjoyed by all humans alike without facing any sort of discrimination.
Civil rights mostly protect from certain violations such as slavery, torture, apartheid, etc.
An International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights lays down the following rights.
|Right to life, against infringements like torture, neglect, force, death, etc.||Right to freedom of speech and expression, against infringements like limiting free speech, imposing limitations on the press, etc.|
|Right to privacy, and against violations that invade one’s personal space, sexual misconduct, etc.||The right to asylum is infringed when a person seeking refuge is deported back to their country where their lives would be at risk.|
|The right to a free and fair trial.||The right to freedom of religion- one is free to preach and practice his choice of faith.|
|The right to be free of discrimination.||The right to vote and take part in government policy.|
Types Of Human Rights Violation
Just as we have various types of human rights, we have different types of Human Rights Violations. They include:
- Political and Civil Rights violations.
- Social, economic, and cultural rights violations.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):-
Ans: There are a few basic human rights that we, as woke statesmen, must be aware of.
They are: 👇
⦿ Right to life
⦿ Right to freedom from torture.
⦿ Right to equal treatment. Right to privacy.
⦿ Right to marry.
⦿ Right to asylum.
⦿ Freedom of thought and expression.
⦿ Right to work.
⦿ Right to education.
⦿ Right to social services.
Rights can be defined as a power or a claim vested in someone by law. The different kinds of rights include:
⦿ Economic Rights
⦿ Social Rights.
⦿ Political Rights.
⦿ Natural Rights.
⦿ Civil Rights.
Bottomline: The ‘Right’ful Way
The abovementioned list of different kinds of human rights are protected by bodies on international, national, state, and even local levels. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is one such safeguarding authority that has offices in the Americas, Africa, Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East, Europe, and South Asia.
Human Right Treaty bodies make sure that the treaties and deals entered into by various nations are honored. These are core human rights treaties, like the International Convention on an Elimination of all types of Forms which are related to the different types of Racial Discrimination. The International Covenant on Civil rights and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, etc.
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